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A genome-wide analysis by researchers and friends James Fowler right and Nicholas Christakis shows that pairs of friends share genetic similarities. Photo by Liza Green. If you consider your friends family, you may be on to something. A study from the University of California, San Diego, and Yale University finds that friends who are not biologically related still resemble each other genetically.
Published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , the study is coauthored by James Fowler, professor of medical genetics and political science at UC San Diego, and Nicholas Christakis, professor of sociology, evolutionary biology, and medicine at Yale. We have more DNA in common with the people we pick as friends than we do with strangers in the same population.
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The study is a genome-wide analysis of nearly 1. The Framingham dataset is the largest the authors are aware of that contains both that level of genetic detail and information on who is friends with whom. The researchers focused on 1, unique subjects and compared pairs of unrelated friends against pairs of unrelated strangers. The same people, who were neither kin nor spouses, were used in both types of samples.
The only thing that differed between them was their social relationship. The Framingham data is dominated by people of European extraction.
While this is a drawback for some research, it may be advantageous to the study here: because all the subjects, friends and not, were drawn from the same population. The researchers also controlled for ancestry, they say, by using the most conservative techniques currently available.
How similar are friends? That translates to about 1 percent of our genes. Yet we are somehow, among a myriad of possibilities, managing to select as friends the people who resemble our kin.
In the simplest terms: If your friend feels cold when you do and builds a fire, you both benefit. These types of traits in people are a kind of social network effect.
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Beyond the average similarities across the whole genome, Fowler and Christakis looked in the study at focused sets of genes. They find that friends are most similar in genes affecting the sense of smell. The opposite holds for genes controlling immunity. That is, friends are relatively more dissimilar in their genetic protection against various diseases. The immunity finding supports what others have recently found in regards to spouses.
And there is a fairly straightforward evolutionary advantage to this, Fowler and Christakis say: Having connections to people who are able to withstand different pathogens reduces interpersonal spread.
But how it is that we select people for this benefit of immunity? The mechanism still remains unclear. Also open to debate and also needing further research is why we might be most similar in our olfactory genes.
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It could be, Fowler said, that our sense of smell draws us to similar environments. It is not hard to imagine that people who like the scent of coffee, for example, hang out at cafes more and so meet and befriend each other.
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But the researchers suspect there is more to the story than that. They note, too, that most likely there are several mechanisms, operating both in concert and in parallel, driving us to choose genetically similar friends. Perhaps the most intriguing result in the study is that genes that were more similar between friends seem to be evolving faster than other genes.
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Kissing cousins How similar are friends? With a little help from our friends Perhaps the most intriguing result in the study is that genes that were more similar between friends seem to be evolving faster than other genes. Search News Search Search.
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